RUBRIC ONE: The First Civilizations and the Classical Legacy
 

Rubric focus: ethics philosophy


Introductory chapter


Werner Herzog's Cave of Forgotten Dreams



Chapter 1

 

Questions for the Book of the Dead, Ma'at, and the Negative Confessions  

1. Who was Ma'at? What concept did she represent?


2. What was the main purpose of a Book of the Dead?


3. What was the weighing of the heart ceremony? What is its significance?


4. According to the Negative Confessions, what kinds of actions did the Egyptians consider inappropriate?


5. Which point(s) of the Negative Confessions do you find most important to maintaining harmony 

    within community?


6. How does the code outlined in the Negative Confessions compare to contemporary codes of morality 

    with which you are familiar? 


7. Choose 2 of the confessions and re-write them as positives instead of negatives.

Aristotle.virtues-vices-mean.pdf Aristotle.virtues-vices-mean.pdf
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Chapter 6




Questions on Seneca, Stoicism, and "On Tranquility of Mind"

1. Who was Seneca?

2. Seneca states that it is necessary to correctly access our character, our strengths and our weaknesses. 
Why?

3. Seneca also states that it is essential to correctly access those with whom we interact. Why? 

4. What qualities does Seneca suggest we seek in our friends?

5. Seneca and Stoics in general maintain that one's disciplined use of a very specific human capacity is vital to one's peace of mind. What is that capacity?

6. Is Seneca's Stoic philosophy anchored in the past, the present, or the future? Explain.

7. What specifically does Seneca name as the "greatest source of affliction to humanity"? Why?



Chapter 7

Follow this link.  




RUBRIC TWO: 
Medieval Europe and the World Beyond

Rubric focus: religious architecture


Chapter 8 

Define, identify, or explain the following:

  • the Diaspora 
  • Rabbi
  • factors contributing to the spread of Christianity
  • Edict of Milan (313 CE)
  • Siddharta Gautama
  • Buddha
  • the Enlightened One
  • Four Noble Truths of Buddha
  • stupas

In-class viewing: Buddhism, from the series Heaven on Earth: Monuments to Belief 

(WCC Library website: "Films on Demand" / 26:14 minutes)

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Chapter 9 

Define, identify, or explain the following:

  • Saint Augustine of Hippo
  • icon
  • iconography
  • Byzantine Empire
  • Constantine
  • Constantinople
  • Istanbul
  • Justinian and Theodora
  • Hagia Sophia
  • mosaic


In-class viewing: Hagia Sophia: Istanbul's Ancient Mystery 

(WCC Library website: "Films on Demand" / 53:20 minutes)



Post-viewing questions for Hagia Sophia: Istanbul's Ancient Mystery

1. What is Hagia Sophia?

2. Where is Hagia Sophia?

3. When was Hagia Sophia built?

4. Who built Hagia Sophia? (name both the architect and the ruler)

5. What is the origin of some of the stones used in Hagia Sophia? (name several places)

6. What is the greatest geological threat to Hagia Sophia?

7. What cultural threats have impacted Hagia Sophia?

8. What is the purpose of the windows in the second dome designed and constructed for Hagia Sophia?

9. What religious groups have worshipped in Hagia Sophia?

10. What is Hagia Sophia's function today?

11. What is the purpose of the thin gold leafing in the mosaics? 

12. What is the purpose of building a model of Hagia Sophia?


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Chapter 10

Religious architecture

Essential forms: the sacred mountain, post-and-lintel, the tower, the arch (and its combinations, called 

"vaults"), the dome of heaven


Essential terms: arch, vault, buttress


Sacred buildings: temple, shrine, stupa, church, mosque, pagoda




Islamic Mosque Architecture 

Terms

Mosque: the term for a Muslim place of worship.

Mecca: The birthplace of the prophet Mohammad (570–632CE), Mecca is a city in modern-day western Saudi 

           Arabia, considered by Muslims to be the holiest city of Islam.

Hajj: This Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca takes place in the last month of the year. All Muslims are expected to 

        make this trip at least once during their lifetime.

Kaaba: A square stone building in the center of the Great Mosque at Mecca, this is the most holy site in the 

           Muslim faith. It stands on the site of a pre-Islamic shrine said to have been built by Abraham. Muslims 

           worldwide are supposed to face in the direction of the Kaaba during prayer.

Qibla: the term for the direction of the Kaaba, to which Muslims turn at prayer. The qibla is indicated in a  

          mosque by the position of the mihrab.


Mihrab: A niche in the wall of each mosque at the point nearest to Mecca, the congregation faces the mihrab 

            to pray.


Minaret: A tall slender tower, typically part of a mosque, a minaret contains a balcony from which a muezzin 

            calls Muslims to prayer.

Muezzin: The muezzin is a man who calls Muslims to prayer from the minaret of a mosque.


Minbar: a raised podium from which a religious leader speaks to those gathered in the mosque

Ablution fountain: where those who gather to pray wash themselves first



Two well known examples of Islamic architecture that are not mosques

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem 

The Taj Mahal mausoleum in Agra, India 





The 3 principle architectural styles of Islamic mosques 

1. The hypostyle mosque

Mosque of Uqba (Kairouan, Tunisia)

Córdoba (Spain)




2. The four-iwan mosque



3. The centrally-planned mosque



[Example of contemporary mosque architecture, with a blending of styles: King Faisel Mosque in Islamabad, 

Pakistan]


Useful references:






GROUP DISCUSSION PROMPTS

1. Islam rapidly spread east and west from the Middle East into both India and Spain. 

   Despite these geographic contrasts, what features do mosques typically have in common?


2. Islamic mosques are not decorated with images of people. 

    Instead, what decorative motifs and techniques are used?



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Chapter 11

Code of chivalry

To fear God and maintain His Church

To serve the liege lord in courage and faith

To protect the weak and defenseless

To aid widows and orphans

To refrain from the wanton giving of offense

To live by honor and for glory

To despise pecuniary (monetary) reward

To fight for the welfare of all

To obey those placed in authority

To guard the honor of fellow knights

To eschew (avoid/refrain from) unfairness, meanness and deceit

To keep faith

To speak the truth at all times

To persevere to the end in any task undertaken

To respect the honor of women

Never to refuse a challenge from an equal

Never to turn the back upon a foe


Questions: Song of Roland

1. What type of literature is the Song of Roland?


2. When was the story composed?


3. Who are the principle characters in the story?


4. What are the main points of the story in the story?


5. Though they disagree, both Roland and Oliver are presented as role models. Using the descriptions of the 

    two, describe the ideal knight (a balance between the characteristics of Roland and those of Oliver).


6. What is the disagreement between Roland and Oliver?


7. Why does Roland refuse to call for help on his Olifant (horn)?


8. What do you think about Oliver and Roland’s decisions?



The Stages of Courtly Love

Attraction to the lady, usually through a glance

Worship of the lady from afar

Declaration of passionate devotion

Virtuous rejection by the lady

Moans of approaching death from unsatisfied desire, and other physical manifestations of lovesickness

Heroic deeds of valor which win the lady’s heart

Consummation of the secret love

Endless adventures and subterfuges avoiding detection 


Courtly Love depicted an affair characterized by 5 main attributes:

1. It was aristocratic: it was practiced by noble lords and ladies.


2. It was ritualistic: the lovers observed conventions such as the exchange of gifts and tokens of love (the lady 

    was generally the recipient).


3. It was secret: courtly lovers pledged strict secrecy, with the exception of necessary go-betweens.


4. It was adulterous: noble marriage was typically a political or economic union whose purpose was to produce 

    heirs; courtly love relationships provided other attractions.


5. It was literary: courtly love was a subject of fictional literature long before it established itself in real-life 

    relationships.


Code of Courtly Love

12th century author Andreas Capellanus (Andrew the Chaplain) wrote a treatise on love entitled De 

amore (About Love or The Art of Courtly Love) while serving as chaplain for the court of Marie, Countess of 

Champagne, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine. It is essentially a medieval amalgam of Platonism and 

sensuality that laid the foundation for modern notions of romantic love. 


Rules of love according to The Art of Courtly Love:

Marriage is no real excuse for not loving

He who is not jealous, cannot love

No one can be bound by a double love

It is well known that love is always increasing or decreasing

That which a lover takes against the will of his beloved has no relish

Boys do not love until they arrive at the age of maturity

When one lover dies, a widowhood of two years is required of the survivor

No one should be deprived of love without the very best of reasons

No one can love unless he is impelled by the persuasion of love

Love is always a stranger in the home of avarice

It is not proper to love any woman whom one would be ashamed to seek to marry

A true lover does not desire to embrace in love anyone except his beloved

When made public love rarely endures

The easy attainment of love makes it of little value; difficulty of attainment makes it prized

Every lover regularly turns pale in the presence of his beloved

When a lover suddenly catches sight of his beloved, his heart palpitates

A new love puts to flight an old one

Good character alone makes any man worthy of love

If love diminishes, it quickly fails and rarely revives

A man in love is always apprehensive

Real jealousy always increases the feeling of love

Jealousy, and therefore love, are increased when one suspects his beloved

He whom the thought of love vexes eats and sleeps very little

Every act of a lover ends in the thought of his beloved

A true lover considers nothing good except what he thinks will please his beloved

Love can deny nothing to love

A lover can never have enough of the solaces of his beloved

A slight presumption causes a lover to suspect his beloved

A man who is vexed by too much passion usually does not love

A true lover is constantly and without intermission possessed by the thought of his beloved

Nothing forbids one woman being loved by two men or one man by two women


Questions: Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, by Chrétien de Troyes

1. What type of literature is Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart?


2. When was the story composed?


3. Who are the principle characters of the story?


4. What are the main points of the story?

_____


Gothic cathedral Notre-Dame-de-Paris 

Chartres 

Chartres Cathedral (UNESCO)     

The Royal Portals of Chartres Cathedral   


NYC's St. Patrick's Cathedral  

Chapel of the Cross 

Gothic architecture on the American college campus   



    Below left: West façade of Chartres Cathedral (Chartres)             Below right: West façade of Notre-Dame (Paris)















RUBRIC THREE: The European Renaissance, the Reformation, and Global Encounter

Rubric focus: literature (oral and written)


Chapter 15

Group Discussion Questions:

1. How does literature reflect culture?

2. How can literature shape culture?
 




Chapter 16 

Group Discussion Questions:

1. During the European Middle Ages, is the focus on humankind or on a divine external force?

2. In the ancient Greek and Roman philosophies we studied, is the focus on humankind or on a divine external 

force?

3. Where is the focus in the Buddhist, Islamic, and Confucian belief systems we've considered?

4. Why is it important to learn about context when studying different aspects of a culture?

5. What influences our perception and understanding of a culture?
 







Questions on Reading 16.5 (Marinella)

1. Marinella divides the false, slanderous accusations made against women into 2 categories. What are they?

2. Why won't Marinella respond to arguments based on "specious reasonings"?

3. How does Marinella explain the errors that intelligent, educated men make about women?

4. Identify the passage in the reading that discusses invalid, inductive reasoning.

5. How does Marinella use the arguments of men to prove her point (that women are better and less weak of 

    will than men)? 

 


→To explore further the topic of violence against women during the European Renaissance, follow these links:


2.  Joan of Arc  




To learn more about Machievelli's The Prince, you may enjoy watching a short video (22:54) available 

   through Films on Demand via the WCC Library website. In the search box, type Machievelli: The Prince.

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Chapter 17


To explore more about linear perspective, check out this video: "Understanding Linear Perspective"  



GROUP DISCUSSION PROMPT #1 


1. Share the image you've chosen for today's assignment with the members of your group: identify the type of 

    art work (painting, sculpture, etc.), the title, artist, and time period; then explain why you chose the work 

    of art. 



2. When your group has completed point 1, turn to page 410 of our textbook and study the painting  
   
   at the top of the page. Identify the artist, medium, and the time periods represented. 



3. Next study the iconography (= the imagery within an artwork). Make a detailed list of what you see, noting 

   images, colors, shapes, lines, etc.


4. Examine the clothing of each of the figures in the fresco. Which figures (people) appear more than once

    Consider possible reasons for those repetitions.



5. 
Come to a consensus about the primary theme of this art work. Then write a theme statement, using a 

    complete sentence (or sentences). Points to consider: historical context, subject matter and medium, 

    composition and line, shape, color, focal areas, balance and perspective.

    
Example:

Leonardo da Vinci’s Renaissance paintingThe Last Supper is a fresco commissioned by Ludovico 

Sforza, the Duke of Milan. It measures 15' by 29' and depicts a very particular moment in biblical history: 

the moment just seconds after Jesus explained to his disciples that one of them would betray him. 

Choosing this particular moment allowed the artist to explore the emotions and psyches of the figures in 

the painting as they react to the announcement of the central figure, Jesus.



6. Share your group's theme statement with the rest of the class.



GROUP DISCUSSION PROMPT #2 


1. Turn to page 400 of our textbook and study Donatello's sculpture David. Describe the figure, making a list 

    of what you see. 



2. Now turn to page 423 of our textbook and study Michelangelo's sculpture David. Describe this figure.



3. Compare the two sculptures of David. Which is more realistic? Explain your reasoning.



4. Which sculpture appeals to you more? Why? If neither sculpture appeals to you, explain why.

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Chapter 18

Explore more about the Sundiata here and here.

Learn more about the role of the griot here and/or watch Keita: the Heritage of the Griot via the WCC Library's 

Films on Demand.

Film Description: 
In this story-within-a-story, Mabo Keita, a young boy living in contemporary Burkina Faso, receives a message from a traditional storyteller (griot) that he must “learn the meaning of his name.” Mabo is a descendent of Sundiata Keita, legendary founder of the Mali Empire and hero of The Epic of Sundiata. As Sundiata Keita comes to understand his role in Mandé history, so the younger Keita grasps the scope and significance of his heritage—a lesson that was not taught in his school’s Westernized curriculum. French and Jula with English subtitles. (94 minutes)

Listen to Malian musician Salif Keita performing "Folon" here.





Maiden of Deception Pass, Guardian of Her Samish People (DVD viewed in class)

Read and/or listen to the legend here and/or here.



Learn more about the Haudenosaunee Confederacy here (not required).

___


GROUP DISCUSSION PROMPTS:


The Haudenosaunee Confederacy and "Hodadenon: the last one left and the chestnut tree"

1. Who are the Haudenosaunee?

2. What is a confederacy?

3. What is a participatory democracy?

4. What kind of constitution did the Haudenosaunee Confederacy originally have?

5. What are the three principles of the Great Law?

6. What do you think is the meaning of "the power of the good mind"?

7. What is a clan? (give details pertaining to the Haudenosaunee Confederacy)

8. How do you interpret the statement, "peace is a state of mind"?

9. Read together as a group the Haudenosaunee values and ethics. 

10. Find examples of those values in the story, "Hodadenon: the last one left and the chestnut tree."


___



Post-viewing questions for Maiden of Deception Pass: Guardian of Her Samish People

1. What is the purpose of this documentary?

2. Who was Ko-kwal-alwoot?

3. What is the significance of the Ko-kwal-alwoot story to the Samish people?

4. What is the significance of the family in Samish culture?

5. Why was the story pole created?

6. Who carved the story pole?

7. For a long period of time, the Samish people were not recognized as a tribe by the United States federal
   
   government. Why?

8. Why did so many Samish people move away from the region where they had lived for so long?

9. What was Tracy Powell’s initial reaction when he saw the log for the story pole?

10. Where is the story pole located?

11. What do the two sides of the story pole represent?

12. What is the significance to the Samish Indian Nation of the Maiden of Deception Pass story pole 

      project?


Discussion Question

What do the Native American stories we’ve considered have in common? Identify at least three points and give 

specific references from the stories to support your ideas.






Chapter 19


Discussion Prompts: Reading 19.5 excerpts from Montaigne's On Cannibals (1580)

1. Why does Montaigne trust the knowledge of the man he presents in the first paragraph of the reading?


2. What does Montaigne say about direct experience compared to conjecture?


3. What does Montaigne indicate about the word "barbarian"?


4. How does Montaigne contrast the "natural" world and the "civilized" world?


5. How does Montaigne evaluate the practice of cannibalism in the society he describes? How does he 

compare it to certain European practices?


6. What does Montaigne's declaration that "we may well call these people barbarians, in respect of the rules of 

reason" tell us about whether he believes in moral absolutes?  (i.e. Moral absolutism is an ethical view that 

particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong, irrespective of culture.)



7. "'Each man calls barbarism whatever is not his own practice,' writes Montaigne. What illustrations does he 

offer? Does this claim hold true in our own day and age?" (Fiero, p.496)





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